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来源:中国科技网 作者:张微编译 2016年09月08日 10:20
[导读] 马德里理工大学的研究人员用纺织废料开发了一种板材,能够提高建筑物的隔声隔热条件,并降低建筑材料生产过程中的能源消耗和二氧化碳排放。

纺织纤维废料有助于提高材料的可持续性 

 

   

马德里理工大学的研究人员用纺织废料开发了一种板材,能够提高建筑物的隔热隔声条件,并降低建筑材料生产过程中的能源消耗,和温室气体排放。 

为了开发既能用于新建筑也能用于旧建筑改造的板材,来自马德里理工大学建筑学院的三名研究人员利用纺织材料开展研究。利用这种方法开发的板材比市场上其它同类产品要轻,而且它们的隔热隔声条件更佳。此外,再生材料的使用显著降低了生产过程中的能源消耗,降低了废料在垃圾填埋场进行焚烧和存储过程中对环境所造成的影响。 

建筑业对能源消耗和二氧化碳排放量有很大的影响。施工中使用的材料和制造工艺对能源效率有很高的影响。因此,废料的使用不仅降低了新产品开发过程中的能源消耗,也延长了它们的生命周期。 

由于环境问题,一项新的欧洲法律在2002年颁布,以鼓励废物的管理和回收利用。 

在欧盟每年产生的纺织废料大约有580万吨,其中只有25%能够回收,43万吨废料或者焚烧或者在垃圾填埋场处理。根据纺织品和服装信息中心(CITYC)提供的信息,在2011年西班牙产生的纺织废料共计301,600吨。 

这项研究的目的是将纺织废料重新引入生产环节,制造出能够用于建筑内部装修的板材。需要强调的是,这些废料不需要任何特殊处理,因为它们都是具有良好质量产品的剩余物,如生产过程中的下脚料或剩余的线头。 

生产这种板材要用到化学粘合剂,因为粘合剂的污染排放、毒性和易燃性会对板材造成负面影响。因此,研究人员建议使用具有良好性能的低消耗粘合剂,来防止火灾和污染物排放,如石灰。 

因此,研究人员用天然的水硬石灰开发了粘合剂纺织纤维板材。根据试验,用纺织纤维废料制成的板材比市场上同类产品密度低。这意味着使用这种板材作为支撑系统重量更轻。 

同样,这些板材能够提高热行为,它们能将其它材料的热导率降低两倍。同时,纺织纤维的引入也可以提高材料的声学性能,因为它具有吸声性能、 

开发这种新产品的研究人员说:“使用这种类型的板材显著提高了建筑的隔热隔音条件,同时减少了建筑材料生产过程的能源消耗和温室气体排放量。

“英文原文” 

Textile fiber waste helps improve the sustainability of materials 

Researchers from UPM have developed a panel with textile waste that improves both the thermal and acoustic conditions of buildings and reduces the energy impact associated to the production of construction materials and greenhouse gases emissions. 

Three researchers from School of Architecture at Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) have carried out this research using textile materials in order to obtain panels of inner divisions to be used in both new constructions and rehabilitation of buildings. The panels obtained by using this method are lighter than others similar in the market and they provide better thermal and acoustic performance. Additionally, the usage of recycled materials contributes to significant reductions of energy consumption derived from the manufacturing process while reducing the environmental impact on its incineration and storage at landfills. 

The construction sector has a great impact on the energy consumption and co2 emissions into the atmosphere. The materials and the manufacturing processes used in construction have a high impact on the energy efficiency. Thus, the use of material waste not only reduces the energy consumption in the development of new products but also increases their life cycle. 

Because of these environmental issues, a new European law was enacted in 2002 in order to encourage the management and recycling of material waste. 

There are about 5.8 million tons of textile wastes discarded in the European Union every year, only the 25 percent of this waste is recycled and 4.3 millions of tons are either incinerated or stored at landfills. According to the information provided by Textile and Clothing Information Centre (CITYC), a total of 301,600 tons of textile waste were generated in Spain in 2011. 

The aim of this study carried out by UPM researchers has been to reintroduce this textile waste in the productive chain in order to obtain the panels for interior fittings used in construction. It is important to say that the used waste does not require any special treatment since they are remnants of quality control products such as manufacturing offcuts or remnants of threads. 

The use of chemical binders for the production of boards has a downside due to their pollutant emissions, toxicity and fire performance. In that way, researchers suggest a low consumption binder with excellent properties against fires and contaminant emissions such as lime. 

Thus, researchers have developed a panel of binder textile fiber with natural hydraulic lime. According to the trials, the panels with textile fiber waste have lower density than others similar in the market. This means a lightening of the support systems of the panels. 

Likewise, these panels can enhance the thermal behavior by reducing twice the thermal conductivity of other commercial materials. At the same time, the introduction of textile fibers can also improve the acoustic behavior of the panels in terms of sound absorption. 

The researchers who developed this new product say: "the use of these types of panels significantly enhances both the thermal and acoustic conditions in construction while reducing the energy impact associated to the development of construction materials and greenhouse gas emissions". 

  

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